Concept Of National Development Pdf
What has been happening to poverty? This invariably means that a rise in any one of these central challenges disqualifies that society from being called developed. First of all let us observe the dictionary meaning of development. The flaws of this theory led to the development of another theory which is the dependency theory or the underdevelopment theory.
The third world kowtowing to these pressures from the first world led to the weakening of its institutions and eventually their inability to develop. The only way to change this is to break the chain of dependency by a working class, employing the socialist revolution.
What matters most to us is that we have understood the concept of national development. In sum, this paper which discusses the concept of development also pays particular attention to its various dimensions. It is imperative that we understand the concept of National Development in the course of this study. Neo colonialism brought with it established international laws and regulations covering prices, simple english story books free pdf currency dealing and banking systems.
THE MEANING AND CONCEPT OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
The reasoning was that the poorest peoples living in rural areas were a potential and badly needed labor force. This comprehensive approach does not reflect all approaches to sustainable development. The leaders of these nations, often known as the third world, have exhorted their citizens to strive for development and have formulated policies and implemented programs towards this end. The definition of development above will go a long way in helping us define national development. Andre Gunder Frank also explained the dependency theory in another way which differs from that offered by classical Marxism.
Members of the third world were seen to be traditional and are characterized by their emotional, superstitious, and fatalistic approach to the world. At the level of the individual, it implies increase skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self-discipline, responsibility and material well being. Thus such economic growth becomes difficult to sustain politically. The two dimensions of development which are the economic dimension and the social dimension have been blatantly differentiated. If all three of these have declined from high levels, then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned.
From this view of development deprivation, degradation, poverty all indicate underdevelopment wherever they are found, and it is crucial to do certain things in order to reduce poverty. Scholars such as Samuel Huntington tried to redefine the modernization theory by suggesting the best form of government for African development as one under authoritarian regimes but not democracy.
The report was largely a response to the growing international environmental and ecological lobby. From the fore going as Ogai posits, it is comprehensible that he divides development into economic, social and legal dimensions. There approach therefore requires an approach in mind in order to ensure a change in attitude.
Human Development Report has cautioned us not to look at any of the dimensions of development in isolation but rather we should see them as complementing each other. Rodney argues that it is likely the trade had a serious impact on the growth of the African population. We are thus presented with a cycle within which economic development lead to an improvement in the life of people and people with a better life also contributing to economic advancement.
National Development Meaning and Problems
This paper however seeks to discuss concept of development and explicitly showing the various dimensions of development. The tools of scientific planning would enable the underdeveloped nations to escape from undesirable status and become fully developed in a few decades. The means of getting there was clearly delineated. These dimensions are the Economic dimension, which was dominant during the post colonial era, and the humanistic dimension, which served as an apology to the economic dimension.
In order to ensure this there was the need to stimulate the fledgling industrial sector and to mobilize the traditional sector of the economy to the task of industrialization. Authors and academics have defined development subjectively, objectively and relatively. Other indicators of development are decrease in human mortality, maternal mortality, high doctor-patient ratio, high life expectancy rate, low infant mortality, and adult literacy, among others.
National development must be a development that takes place in a nation. These people or groups are totally different but united by their commitment for development. The next paragraphs of this paper will be a discussion on these two theories on development.
These countries have been variously labeled as underdeveloped, less-developed, developing, the Third World and the South. The method of adoption of this scientific planning was only possible through diffusion. In the academically coherent words of Ogai Joseph O. The West in an attempt to perpetuate and exploit the South incorporated the elites within these poor countries into this venture.
Since the world war, development has been synonymous with economic, social, and political change in the countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and the South Pacific. Other writers or scholars only see the commonality among these third world countries common reception of foreign aid or development aid.
To him the growth of capitalism and industry led to the underdevelopment of the countries whose economic surplus was exploited by the West. This exploitation is clearly seen in accounts of merchant capitalism, colonialism, and neo-colonialism. Merchant capitalism refers to the accumulation of capital through trade and plunder, as exemplified by the transatlantic slave trade. This effort was to standardize trade to the advantage of the capitalist states. The action of developing or the state of being developed.
The implication here is that development entails high degrees of capacity, equity, empowerment, sustainability, and interdependence. What has been happening to unemployment? This economic dimension was adopted by planner in their attempt to ensure development.
Newer Post Older Post Home. Now, what is national development? It is the development that affects the citizens, economy, industry, politics, culture and administration of a country. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer.
National Development Meaning and Problems
In the s through the s, economists dominated the development debates and saw industrialization and productivity as prerequisites for development. From the four definitions the dictionary offered us, it is apparent that none suffices for a working definition in this study. The modern societies are seen to have their own values but they are however not enslaved by them, their kinship ties are weakened, and finally they are not fatalistic but forward looking. Sustainable development, development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, is also discussed at length. Remember me on this computer.
Neocolonialism means a new form of colonialism, a form of socio-economic domination from outside that does not rely on direct political control. But for the purpose of this study, we shall note those definitions that are relevant to our course of study. Because of the need for the understanding of the meaning of National Development, it becomes a necessity that we ask the first question. In order to understand the whole rationale behind the desire for development we should explain development even though there is no consensus about the meaning of development.
Analysts were thus troubled by the impact of political coercion on the social life of the country. Colonialism ensured underdevelopment because it introduced programs and policies which were rather to serve the colonialists interests and undermined the interest of the colonies. At this point, let us consider analyzing the two main dimensions of development. But history offers a number of examples where economic growth was not followed by similar progress in human development. It involves helping the poorest among those who seek a livelihood in the rural areas to demand and control more of the benefits of development.
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