Radio Interface System Planning For Gsm Gprs Umts Pdf
The better the traffic forecasts the better the configuration antenna heights and capacity can be optimised for network evolution. Thus, coverage planning has to be done over a certain area in order to be able to optimise the base station site locations and thus to utilise the base station configurations. It is also possible to define the base station effective antenna height as a antenna height from the ground without taking into account the terrain height or the location of the mobile. If some external antennas are used, as in vehicle installations, antenna gain could be included if needed. These thresholds also finally define the average maximum distance between two base station sites.
However, nominal values of different mobile station types have to be measured in different environments. In coverage planning the aim is to maximise the base station coverage areas and thus minimise the required infrastructure. Antenna coupling should also be considered if polarisation diversity or duplex filters are not applied and more than one base station antenna is used for example, space diversity in rural areas.
However, the coverage area defines whether the same antenna height and location can be utilised for the different frequency bands. Because log d has a coefficient by changing C the slope of the model can be tuned.
Radio interface system planning for GSM GPRS UMTS
The environment for these values is not revealed, nor is whether diversity reception was applied. It can be noted that the base station configurations are quite different for the coverage and capacity needs. This value of twelve is also called a frequency reuse factor or number because it defines the period of the frequency reuse. It has to be noted that the utilisation of the power amplifier depends strongly on the base station configuration and on the cable length.
Radio Interface System Planning for GSM/GPRS/UMTS
These parameters all concern and handle one type of function in the radio network. Traditionally it is defined that radio planning has to be started from the coverage predictions in order to estimate the number of base stations over a certain coverage area. The receiving multicouplers separate the frequencies in the uplink direction but their attenuation is negligible. Nowadays polarisation and other diversity techniques are more commonly used and studied because they require no physical separation and thus only one base station antenna location is needed. To avoid this the downlink direction must be adjusted according to uplink performance.
As only the final base station site locations may yet amend these configurations these can be clarified and confirmed in the detailed coverage planning. If the terrain is flat then the effective antenna height is the same as the antenna height from the ground. In propagation models is also used as a key parameter. The frequency diversity related improvement at the base station receiving end is called frequency diversity gain and it depends on the separation between two different frequency channels.
Radio interface system planning for GSM GPRS UMTS - PDF Free Download
Finally, the base station subsystem contains the equipment to manage the radio interface between the mobile station and cellular radio network. It is also critical to have a good document about the planning platform in order to define exactly all of the planning tools and interfaces for the different radio system planning phases. System level engineering is thus not addressed because it is typically thought only to be a practical issue. Moreover, the process has to be initiated with the measurements because only they can ensure accurate coverage planning.
In addition, all these diversity techniques can be applied either at the base station or at the mobile station end. The number of cables can be reduced by connecting the transmitting and receiving branches by using a duplex filter and in multi band cases the frequency bands can be connected by using diplexers. Because of its short distance fast fading is considered as small-scale fading. Mobile communication is full of these junctures because almost all the products are new, and technical development work is only just started. Manual linking is also possible.
Traditionally space diversity was used with two base station antennas which were physically separated creating a large antenna configuration. The base station locations should be selected by trying to achieve equal base station coverage areas and enough overlapping and thus try to minimise interference in the radio network. However, some statistics from monitoring are required from the network and some corrections towards optimisation can be done with the radio network before the radio network extensions need to start. Hence, good configuration planning must be made for each area and for each purpose. This depolarisation loss refers to the attenuation whether the vertical or slanted linear polarisation is used.
Slow fading occurs due to the geometry of the path profile. These thresholds are calculated based on slow fading margins, building penetration losses and vehicle penetration losses. Coverage planning ultimately defines the radio network configuration.
The technical performance of these elements is manufacture related. In some planning systems the correction curve is predefined, which limits the usage of the clearance angle method in some cases. If better better location probability is required a higher slow fading margin is applied. This is evolution planning that is really needed for long term cost efficient configurations. This means that time and location probabilities for the network must be high enough to ensure customer satisfaction.
It has been explained that the interference degrade margin is required because of the multiuser interference situations. In micro base stations and indoor applications tilting is usually not needed as a wide beamwidth is recommended here.
If the direct line of sight between transmitter and receiver is obstructed, radio waves attenuate due to diffraction. Hence, a simple and clear handbook about the radio planning principles and their connections in mobile communications systems is required to explain this system level planning. However, two boots menu pdf in radio planning such a high cable loss should be avoided and in extraordinary situations as these a downlink booster is often required.
The last antenna related parameter is tilting, required in order to decrease interference in high capacity areas where base station coverage has to be limited and focused. The value of standard deviation depends on the environment close to the receiver. There are two measures to validate the tuning. This means that field strength must be better than the given threshold with some probability.
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