Types Of Power Plants Pdf
The energy source harnessed to turn the generator shaft varies widely, and is chiefly dependent on the type of fuel used. Passive use of solar energy takes place when houses and buildings have been created in such a manner that they get the maximum exposure to the rays of the sun. Power plants are not a recent invention. Propeller A propeller turbine generally has a runner with three to six blades in which the water contacts all of the blades constantly. The extra addition in these concentrating power plants is that they make use of mirrors and lenses in order to capture energy from the rays of the sun.
In some cases operators deliberately produce less power for economic reasons. Besides use of reject heat for process or district heating, one way to improve overall efficiency of a power plant is to combine two different thermodynamic cycles in a combined cycle plant.
Power Plants and Types of Power Plant
Photovoltaic cells will capture the energy which is generated from the sun and get it converted into electricity. These alternative sources of generation has been given due importance in the last few decades owing to the depleting amount of the natural fuels available to us. Bulb Turbine The turbine and generator are a sealed unit placed directly in the water stream. Wind turbines can be used to generate electricity in areas with strong, steady winds, sometimes offshore.
Draft tubes are not required for impulse turbine since the runner must be located above the maximum tailwater to permit operation at atmospheric pressure. The coal is burned in a boiler at high temperatures. Transmission and distribution. Freshwater is also pumped into the pressure chamber through a membrane, which increases both the volume and pressure of the chamber.
Large coal-fired, nuclear, and hydroelectric power stations can generate hundreds of megawatts to multiple gigawatts. The waste heat produces a temperature rise in the atmosphere, which is small compared to that produced by greenhouse-gas emissions from the same power plant. Once the process of steam formation is accomplished, the remaining process is exactly similar to a thermal power plant, as this steam will further drive the turbine blades to generate electricity. Cross-Flow A cross-flow turbine is drum-shaped and uses an elongated, rectangular-section nozzle directed against curved vanes on a cylindrically shaped runner. All thermal power plants produce waste heat energy as a byproduct of the useful electrical energy produced.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The penstock bends just before or after the runner, allowing a straight line connection to the generator. Operating staff at a power station have several duties.
Types Of Solar Power Plants
Renewable Energy Power Plants Power plants can also use renewable energy to generate electricity. Biomass energy can be produced from combustion of waste green material to heat water into steam and drive a steam turbine. The fuel is burned at high temperatures to release the energy. Generators were no longer limited by the power transmission of belts or the relatively slow speed of reciprocating engines, and could grow to enormous sizes. The Calpine Riverside and the Calpine Fox power stations in Wisconsin as well as the Calpine Mankato power station in Minnesota are among these facilities.
After entering into the turbine, the steam pressure suddenly falls leading to corresponding increase in the steam volume. Fossil Fuel Power Stations Coal is one of the most commonly used fossil fuels used to generate electricity in a fossil fuel power station. They maintain the equipment with periodic inspections and log temperatures, pressures and other important information at regular intervals. The nuclear power generating stations are similar to the thermal stations in more ways than one. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Power plants.
Water is introduced just above the runner and all around it and then falls through, causing it to spin. It relies on steam generated from burning different kinds of fuel in order to work.
Power stations can also generate electrical energy from renewable energy sources. Pressurized Water Reactors.
This is because they all use thermal energy heat from a fuel source coal for example and turn it into kinetic energy. The major components besides the runner are a scroll case, wicket gates, and a draft tube. Building power systems out of central stations required combinations of engineering skill and financial acumen in equal measure. This process requires several stages or steps, where unfortunately, some energy is wasted while some is consumed.
This type of plant does not use rotating machines for energy conversion. The central tower type of solar thermal power plant uses hundreds or thousands of mirrors, depending on size, to direct sunlight onto a receiver on top of a tower. Kaplan Both the blades and the wicket gates are adjustable, allowing for a wider range of operation. The efficiency is not directly a function of the fuel used.
In the industrial use of the word, the term power plant also refers to any arrangement where power is generated. Each of these plants has their own set of advantages and drawbacks from various perspectives and various factors govern which type of power plant is best suited for a particular region or situation. An important point to be noted is that, the hydro-electric plants are of much lower capacity compared to their thermal or nuclear counterpart.
They include, Steam Turbine? As a result, super heated steam at very high temperature is produced. This energy can be harnessed to generate electricity to power homes, transport and industries. This section needs to be updated.
This steam is then super heated in the super heater to extreme high temperature. Pelton A pelton wheel has one or more free jets discharging water into an aerated space and impinging on the buckets of a runner.
The light from the sun will be directed towards the photovoltaic cells and they will be converted into heat energy. Medium heat is used for heating up the inside of homes as well as office buildings. The Pearl Street Station was developed to provide electricity for lighting in the area of lower Manhattan Island. This is the most commonly used machine. This power is utilized for rotating the alternator shaft, to convert it to equivalent electrical energy.
During the last several years of the s, central stations grew in size, and began to use different and improved technologies. This reaction produces the required heat needed to generate steam, which then moves the turbine and generator to create electricity. Salinity gradient energy is called pressure-retarded osmosis.
These types of plants house one to many generators, which are basically machines that rotate in order to convert mechanical power into consumable energy. Types of Hydropower Turbines. Nuclear Power Plants These types of power plants use the heat from a nuclear reactor. For the same steam conditions, coal-, ielts practice books pdf free nuclear- and gas power plants all have the same theoretical efficiency. They in a way assist the thermal or the nuclear plant to deliver power efficiently during periods of peak hours.
Other deciding factors include how deep the turbine must be set, efficiency, and cost. We will discuss more about these in later articles. They do not require the diversion of water through manmade channels, riverbeds, or pipes, although they might have applications in such conduits. Steam turbines generally operate at higher efficiency when operated at full capacity.
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